Chandrayaan- 2 was launched from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh at 02:43 pm on 22-July-2019, Monday. The Chandrayaan-2 is an INR 978-crore unmanned mission. Chandrayaan-2 (Sanskrit: चन्द्रयान-२)( Chandra means Moon) Moon-craft is India’s second lunar exploration mission on Moon after Chandrayaan-1. Chandrayaan-2 has powerful punch lines/titles like: “Expanding the boundaries of human knowledge”, “Indian Ambitions, Universal Aspirations”.
This is developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). The mission was launched from Satish Dhawan Space Centre located in Sriharikota (about 100 km from Chennai), Nellore District in Andhra Pradesh State India. Sriharikota Range was renamed in 2002 after ISRO’s former chairman Satish Dhawan. The mission was launched on 22 July 2019 at 2.43 PM IST (09:13 UTC) to the Moon by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III (GSLV Mk III). The Chandrayaan-2 craft consists of a lunar orbiter, lander and rover, all developed in India. The main scientific objective is to map the location and abundance of lunar water. Chandrayaan 2 is an Indian lunar mission that is planned to go boldly where no country has ever gone before i.e to the Moon’s south polar region. Through this effort of the mission, the aim is to improve understanding of the Moon in details. And the discoveries will benefit not only India but humanity as a whole.
The Moon is the closest space body at which space discovery can be attempted and documented effectively. The results of this mission on Moon will help for the testbed to demonstrate the latest technologies required for next deep-space missions. Chandrayaan 2 attempts to promote a new age of discovery, increase understanding of space, stimulate the advancement of technology, promote global alliances, and inspire a future generation of explorers and scientists.
Chandrayaan-2 will provide the best linkage to Earth’s early history. The mission offers an undisturbed historical record of the inner Solar system. The lunar South Pole remains in shadow that’s why the lunar South Pole is especially interesting. It is much larger than that at the North Pole. There is a possibility of the presence of water in permanently shadowed areas around it. In addition, South Pole region has craters that are cold traps and contain a fossil record of the early Solar System.
Chandrayaan-2 will attempt to soft-land the lander -Vikram and rover- Pragyan in a high plain between two craters, Manzinus C and Simpelius N, at a latitude of about 70° south.
Specialities of Chandrayaan 2.
1st space mission to conduct a soft landing on the Moon’s south polar region.
1st Indian expedition to attempt a soft landing on the lunar surface with home-grown technology.
1st Indian mission to explore the lunar terrain with home-grown technology.
4th country ever to soft land on the lunar surface (after the US, China, and Russia).
What is soft landing ? The landing of a space vehicle on a celestial body or on Earth in such a way as to prevent damage or destruction of the vehicle.
About Launcher and the Spacecraft:
The GSLV Mk-III (nicknamed Baahubali) is India’s most powerful launcher to date, and has been completely designed and fabricated in India. The GSLV Mk-III will carry Chandrayaan 2 to its designated orbit. This three-stage vehicle is India’s most powerful launcher till date.
The Orbiter will observe the lunar surface and relay communication between Earth and Chandrayaan 2’s Lander — Vikram. The Orbiter will be capable of to communicate with Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) at Byalalu (Byalalu is a village in Bangalore south District in Karnataka,)as well as the Vikram Lander.
Orbiter Weight : 2,379 kg, Electric Power Generation Capability : 1,000 W,
The lander is designed to execute India’s first soft landing on the lunar surface. The Lander of Chandrayaan 2 is named as ‘Vikram’ after Dr Vikram A Sarabhai, the Father of the Indian Space Programme. Vikram has the capability to communicate with IDSN at Byalalu near Bangalore, as well as with the Orbiter and Rover.
Lander Weight :1,471 kg, Electric Power Generation Capability : 650 W.
The rover is a 6-wheeled, AI-powered vehicle named Pragyan, which translates to ‘wisdom’ in Sanskrit. It can only communicate with the Lander.
Rover Weight : 27 kg,
Electric Power Generation Capability : 50 W
About Chandrayaan 1:
Chandrayaan-1 was India’s first mission to the moon. The name Chandrayaan means “Chandra- Moon, Yaan-vehicle”, –in Indian languages (Sanskrit and Hindi), – the lunar spacecraft.
15th August, 2003: Chandrayaan programme is announced by Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee
22nd October, 2008: Chandrayaan 1 takes off from the Satish Dhawan Space Centre at Sriharikota
8th November, 2008: Chandrayaan 1 enters a Lunar Transfer Trajectory
14th November, 2008: The Moon Impact Probe ejects from Chandrayaan 1 and crashes near the lunar South Pole — confirms presence of water molecules on Moon’s surface
28th August, 2009: End of Chandrayaan 1 programme.
Other Points :
Chairman of ISRO is K Sivan
The lander Vikram will finally land on the South Pole of the Moon on September 6, 2019. It will carry out experiments on the lunar surface for a period of one lunar day which is equal to 14 Earth days. The orbiter will continue its mission for the duration of one year.
Team Behind Chandrayaan-2 mission : Ritu Karidhal and Muthayya Vanitha, the Mission and Project directors respectively.
GSLV full form: GEOSYNCHRONOUS SATELLITE LAUNCH VEHICLE. GSLV MK-III Height is 43.43 meters and Lift Off Mass 640 tonnes.
Must watch video on Chandrayaan-2 : Click Here
Source : ISRO